Library Juice 1:16 - April 29, 1998

Quote of the week: 
"The eternal conflict of good and the best with bad and the worst 
is on.  The librarian must be the librarian militant before he can 
be the librarian triumphant.  At the end of another century, when a 
conference like this is held, our descendants will look back with wonder to 
find that we have so long been satisfied to leave the control of the 
all-pervading, all-influencing newspaper in the hands of people who have 
behind them no motive better than 'the almighty dollar.'" 
-Melvil Dewey, in "The Relation of The State to the Public Library," 
originally reprinted from the _Transactions and Proceedings of the Second 
International Library Conference, 1889_, and published in _American Library 
Philosophy: An Anthology_, selected by Barbara McCrimmon, Hamden, CT: The 
Shoe String Press, 1975.  On the web at: 
1. American Libraries Online 
2. Website/Directory for Alternative Businesses 
4. The Wonderful World of Trees [frames] 
5. Scout Reports for Social Sciences and Business & Economics 
6. DOE Information Bridge--DOE, GPO [Frames] 
7. New Report Finds E-FOIA Efforts Lacking 
8. New Issue of Cultural Resource Management - "Slavery and Resistance" 
9. Discussion of Rice v. Paladin (1st Amendment & the Press) 
10. Creating and Preserving Digital Resources - UK Study 
11. Q & A on Smelly Patrons  (includes article by Carol Reid) 
12. El Cinco de Mayo (5 Mayo) -  History 
13. Reclaiming May Day - American History from an anarchist perspective 
1. American Libraries Online 
News stories appearing in the April 27 American Libraries Online 
* Alabama Tornado Devastates Colony Library 
* Librarians Rescue Children from Nashville Tornado 
* Will Loudoun Trustees Deselect Internet Filters? 
* New OCLC Chief Named 
* Santa Clara Reverses No-Filter Stand 
* ACLU, Library Groups Fight New Mexico Cybersmut Law 
* Pearl Jam Gives Boost to Seattle School Library Fund 
* West Virginia faces June 30 Deadline to Spend $1.2 Million 
* Man Arrested for Mutilating Materials 
* British Library Unveils Electronic System That *Turns Pages* 
* Proposed San Diego Library Derided as Taxpayer Ripoff 
* Petition against Clinton Library Funding Fails 
American Libraries* Web site also features the latest *Internet Librarian* 
columns by Karen Schneider; AL*s *Career Leads* job ads; listings of 
conferences, continuing-education courses, exhibitions, and other events 
from AL*s *Datebook*; Tables of Contents for the current year; 1996 and 
1997 indexes; and more. 
2.  Website/Directory for Alternative Businesses 
---------- Forwarded message ---------- 
Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 16:06:20 -0400 (EDT) 
From: Steve Habib Rose <habib[at]> 
Reply-To: eon[at] 
Hello, folks. 
I have established a website for the ONE: Organizing a New Economy project 
This website provides links to Alternative Business Directories, Related 
Industry Associations, Websites, and Discussion Lists.  I've added a few 
resources under each category, but am hoping that you will add your own 
through the easy to use Create a New Listing feature.  Hey, it ain't 
exactly Yahoo, but it's a start! 
Based on feedback from a couple of people, I am probably not going to 
bother with creating a prototype business directory.  There are lots of 
existing directories (including a huges GreenPages from Coop America).  I 
think we will be best off working to help link up those directories, and 
perhaps gently pressure them to work together, and be more inclusive as 
appropriate (e.g. for "green" business directories to include minority 
owned businesses and vice versa). 
By the way, I have spoken to someone with the Black Dollar Days Task 
Force-- -- who is going to discuss with their Board 
the possibility of including progressive/environmentally oriented 
businesses in their upcoming business directory.  Up till now, it has been 
strictly an African American Business Directory (for Seattle, Tacoma, and 
Portland), but they are thinking of including other minority owned 
businesses, and might be open to expanding in other ways. 
Steve Habib Rose Host of The Garden Web: Email: 
habib[at] ICQ:   7649155 
Treeflesh is 44 pages of anti-authoritarian thought and action with a 
strong focus on ecology.  The premier issue will be out any day now and 
included articles on environmentalism in the northeast (USA), police 
brutality in Plymouth, MA, the victory gardens project, the east coast 
microbroadcasters conference, political prisoner info and much more. 
To receive a copy of THIS issue, send 4 stamps before June 1st to: 
Treeflesh c/o POB 869, Searsport, ME 04974 (NOTE: This address will be 
changing, mail will be forwarded). 
Writers needed for issue #2.  Send articles, action reports, poetry, 
graphics, cartoons, etc to:  Treeflesh, c/o POB 869, Searsport, ME 04974 
4. The Wonderful World of Trees [frames] French version: 
Domtar Inc., a Canadian paper company, in cooperation with the Commission 
scolaire des Patriotes and the ministere de l'Education du Quebec, provides 
this entertaining and informative K-12 learning resource about trees. 
Interested users should first consult the help file (under the question 
mark) for quick site navigation cues. Content may be accessed through 
either of the main frames or through the graphic navigation icons; the 
Teacher's Room offers suggestions for using the site in a curriculum, and 
the Student's Corner links directly to the main content of the site. 
Perhaps the easiest access to the site is through the folder icon, which 
provides an overall site map. Visitors can learn about a year in the life 
of a tree, and the uses and protection of trees; they can play interactive 
games, perform experiments, or consult an online glossary and a photo album 
of selected North American trees, their leaves and seeds. Note that the 
entire site can be downloaded for later use. [JS] 
The Scout Report: 
Scout Reports for Social Sciences and Business & Economics 
Scout Report for Social Sciences 
Scout Report for Business & Economics 
The fifteenth issues of the Scout Reports for Social Sciences and Business 
& Economics are available. Each Report annotates over twenty new and 
newly-discovered Internet resources. The In the News section of the Social 
Science Report annotates seven resources on the proposed peace agreement in 
Northern Ireland. The Business & Economics Report's In the News section 
annotates ten resources related to bank mergers. [JS] 
The Scout Report: 
6.  DOE Information Bridge--DOE, GPO [Frames] 
The US Department of Energy and Government Printing Office have combined to 
provide this resource, a searchable directory of "full text and 
bibliographic records of report literature produced by the DOE and DOE 
contractor research and development community." Reports are available since 
1996 at this time and  may be searched by three fields in the easy search 
and fourteen in the advanced search. Boolean AND/OR/NOT searching is 
available in the advanced search, and up to five fields can be connected 
this way (note that the Boolean connector choice is a drop down menu at the 
far right of the frame). Documents may be retrieved page by page or in 
their entirety (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] page scans). One of the more useful 
features of the site is the ability to search within a  document once 
documents are retrieved (bottom frame). Four page image viewers are 
available. Note that the legibility of publications varies by viewer and 
publication, and that the site is sometimes down form maintenance between 
12:00 and 4:00 AM Eastern time. As the site grows, it will become a 
magnificent source of DOE sponsored research literature. [JS] 
The Scout Report: 
7. New Report Finds E-FOIA Efforts Lacking 
A new report released on April 20 finds that a majority of federal 
agencies have failed to meet the requirements of the Electronic 
Freedom of Information Act (EFOIA).  EFOIA was enacted in 1996 and 
went into effect in October 1997.  It was designed to make access to 
electronic government records easier. 
The study, produced by OMB Watch, found that of the 56 agencies 
responding to a survey, 23 percent "have no EFOIA presence," 73 
percent have "varying degrees of compliance with the requirements," 
and as of January 31, 1998, "no agency had complied fully with EFOIA." 
OMB Watch found that the Office of Management and Budget, which is 
required to provide guidance under the law, has not provided adequate 
guidance or assistance to agencies during the implementation process. 
It also faulted Congress for failing to provide adequate funding to 
implement the Act. 
The report recommends that OMB provide better guidance and support, 
that agencies better organize their online records, and that an 
enforcement mechanism be created to identify and penalize agencies 
that are not complying with the Act. 
More information on EFOIA is available at: 
8.  New Issue of Cultural Resource Management - Slavery and Resistance 
From: AFAS-L 
Cultural Resource Management, vol. 21, no. 4 (1998) entire issue focuses on 
slavery and resistance.  The online issue is accessible at 
Dorothy Ann Washington 
9. Discussion of Rice v. Paladin (1st Amendment & the Press) 
At 11:49 AM 4/22/98 -0400, Mosley, M. wrote: 
>I just read that the U.S.Supreme Court has let stand the 4th Circuit's 
>decision in Rice v. Paladin Enterprises, Inc.,128 F.3d 233.  There, 
>the Court held that the publisher of a hit-man manual is not shielded 
>by the First Amendment from wrongful death liability to a murder 
>victim's survivors. 
>Please read this case.   I wonder if it will force publishers of "out 
>of the mainstream" materials to think eight or nine times about what 
>they publish. 
>Please share reactions. 
>Madison Mosley Jr. 
>Associate Director 
>Charles A. Dana Law Library 
>Stetson University College of Law 
>1401 61st Street South 
>St. Petersburg, FL 33707 
>Phone : 813.562.7827 
     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
Madison, I very much share your concerns, particularly as the case was 
described in the New York Times.  I think it has the potential to impact 
across many formats, and the language of the case sounded dangerously 
the case itself is at: 
"Paladin has stipulated to a set of facts which establish as a matter of 
law that the publisher is civilly liable for aiding and abetting James 
Perry in his triple murder..." 
A publisher, aiding and abeting a murder by publishing a book?  Eesh, there 
went the First Amendment down the terlet!  Hello, folks, can we discuss 
Karen G. Schneider |  kgs[at] 
     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
Marc Meola: 
As I understand it, the court ruled Paladin criminally aided and 
abetted because they marketed the book specifically to criminals, 
knew and intended for it to be used by criminals, and admitted to 
assisting the convicted assassin in a triple murder. The court said 
that speech that criminal aids and abets is not protected by the first 
amendment, and distinguished this from mere advocacy, which is. 
>From IFAN, Dec 1997 
In rather extraordinary circumstances, Paladin stipulated that it 
specifically targeted the market of murderers, would-be murderers, and 
other criminals for sale of Hit Man. It further stipulated it had knowledge 
and it intended that the "how to" manual would be used 
by criminals and would-be criminals in the solicitation, planning, and 
commission of murder and murder for hire. It also stipulated that, through 
publishing and selling Hit Man, it "assisted" the convicted assassin in 
perpetrating the triple murder for which Rice and the other plaintiffs seek 
to hold the publisher liable. 
Long-established case law, the Court held, "provides that speech -- even 
speech by the press -- that constitutes criminal aiding and abetting does 
not enjoy the protection of the First Amendment." 
he Court distinguished this case from Brandenburg v. Ohio, the 
seminal case wherein the Supreme Court held that mere advocacy of 
lawlessness is protected speech under the First Amendment. 
Marc Meola 
Temple University Libraries 
     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
But in the real world, with this precedent, how do we distinguish between 
books that aid and abet, and those that do not?  What kind of test will you 
have to apply to prove that you were not aiding and abeting? 
>Long-established case law, the Court held, "provides that speech -- >even 
>speech by the press -- that constitutes criminal aiding and >abetting does 
>not enjoy the protection of the  First Amendment." 
This is really, really baggy.  I think the reality is that this case opens 
up a giant hole through which censorship can worm its ugly self. 
Karen G. Schneider 
10. Creating and Preserving Digital Resources 
Digital Collections:  strategic policy framework for creating and 
preserving digital resources 
Version 3.1, 24/4/98 
First Public Consultation and Review Draft 
Neil Beagrie and Daniel Greenstein 
Arts and Humanities Data Service Executive 
The public consultation draft of this study is now available on the 
web at <>.A final publication 
draft is in progress. Comments and additions for incorporation are 
accordingly welcome and should be mailed to neil.beagrie[at] 
and daniel.greenstein[at] by 30 June 1998. 
The study is part of a programme funded by the Joint Information 
Systems Committee (JISC)of the Higher Education sector in the UK, 
following a workshop on the Long-term Preservation of Electronic 
Materials held at Warwick in November 1995. 
The programme of studies is guided by the Digital Archiving Working 
Group, composed of members from UK Higher Education Libraries, Data 
Centres and Services; the British Library; the National Preservation 
Office; the Research Libraries Group; and the Publishers' 
Association. The Group reports to the Management Committee of the 
National Preservation Office in the UK. The programme is administered 
by the British Library Research and Innovation Centre. 
The study was based upon traditional desk-based research methods and 
on fifteen structured interviews. Structured interviews, conducted in 
person or over the phone or by email, involved senior data managers 
and specialists working in organisations both in the UK and overseas 
with experience in digitisation, data management or the long-term 
preservation of digital information resources. Interviewees were 
selected to provide a wide cross-section of experience of different 
media types, and experience in different sectors such as national 
museums, archives, and libraries; university computer centres and 
data archives;scientific data centres; and research libraries. 
Further review and consultation with professional organisations, 
specialists and institutions with an interest in its contents is now 
being sought by placing the draft on the AHDS webpages and inviting 
further input and comments via appropriate email-lists and 
The study has been researched and written by Neil Beagrie 
(Collections and Standards Development Officer) and Daniel 
Greenstein(Director) of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) 
Executive. The AHDS is funded by JISC on behalf of the UK Higher 
Education community to collect, manage, preserve, and promote the re-use 
of scholarly digital resources. Further information on the 
AHDS and its constituent Service Providers is available from the AHDS 
website <>. 
11.  Q & A on Smelly Patrons  (includes article by Carol Reid) 
> FYI. 
> ---------- Forwarded message ---------- 
> Date: Mon, 27 Apr 1998 11:34:30 -0500 
> From: Jeff Coghill <jcoghill[at]> 
> To: member-forum[at] 
> Subject: Patrons 
> I need some opinions here.  We are a medium sized university library 
> with a public access computer lab.  We have a few patrons who are  do 
> not regularly take baths and who are prone to bouts of loud and 
> extended coughing.  This does not seem to bother the students worker 
> staff much.  However,  other patrons have complained and asked us to 
> do something about these people.  I am in a quandary.  How do we work 
> with these people?  Do you ask them to leave?  To take a bath?  I 
> want to preserve our good library environment and keep a positive 
> working relationship with everyone who comes into the lab.  What to 
> do?  What is the policy in your respective libraries? 
> Jeff Coghill 
> McNeese State University 
This can be a problem and I'm not really sure what you should do, but I 
would venture to say ... nothing. You might want to acquaint yourself with 
the Kreimer v. Morristown decision and urge some tolerance and 
fellow-feeling on your patrons. I am attaching a column I wrote on this 
topic for my library newsletter a few years ago. 
Carol Reid 
Kreimer Versus Blamer 
The Kreimer case has ended ambiguously, on a note of acrid acrimony--the 
smell of money and moneylessness.  (The homeless man won $80,000, plus 
another similar sum against the police, in an out-of-court settlement that 
the Morristown library opposed, as an appeal was pending, and for which 
they were dropped by Traveler's Insurance, resulting in considerable debt. 
While the first judge found in favor of Kreimer, and decided that the 
library's regulations were vague, overbroad, discriminatory, and 
unconstitutional, the second judge overturned that ruling.  Kreimer gets to 
keep his money, the library their rules, and once again banning is banned. 
But only theoretically.)  Smelling, in fact, would seem to be the biggest 
problem patrons can present.  It wafts unmistakably through the legal and 
procedural deliberations, as does the amorphous Staring (sometimes 
construed as harassment, other times as daydreaming). 
One librarian writes of a relative who chose for the most part to live on 
the streets and frequented the public library.  She says that "the problem 
of 'starers' had become a hot topic among public librarians in North 
Carolina."  She asked her relative about his use of the library and he told 
her that the main branch had "too many people working in there.  They don't 
have anything to do but sit at their desks and stare at you all day long." 
"I like," she says, "to remind myself of this story every time I start 
thinking that I have the one true perspective on something." 
Speaking of staring down one's fate, Richard Kreimer, homeless advocate and 
eager litigant, is not the only indigent to have found his calling at the 
library.  Michael Brennan, formerly homeless, now a free-lance writer in 
Massachusetts, describes his transformation in a beautifully written essay 
in the January 1992 issue of _American Libraries_.  "Ignoring (his) 
humiliation" (two nearby patrons rising and moving "downwind" of him), he 
determined that "the library was to be my school; the books my curriculum; 
and this after-work cramming my 'homeless work.'" 
Kreimer v. Morristown has prompted important discussion within the library 
community.  Sanford Berman argues eloquently in _Women Library Workers 
Journal_ for the abolition of fines and fees; some libraries have done this 
in order to be less prohibitive to the poor.  Two years ago the Minnesota 
Library Association's Social Responsibilities Round Table submitted a 
wide-ranging policy resolution to ALA concerning "Poor  People's Services" 
and it was adopted.  Last fall ALA's Intellectual Freedom Committee drafted 
"Guidelines for the development of policies regarding patron behavior and 
library usage." 
These two documents taken together illustrate as well as anything the 
different but compatible perspectives of SRRTs and IFRTs, both commendable 
efforts on the part of libraries to promote democracy.  Although Judge 
Sarokin's decision was reversed, his advice remains sound: "If we wish to 
shield our eyes and noses from the homeless, we should revoke their 
condition, not their library cards."  In the meantime, here are some other 
inspiring notions (from the American Library Association Fact Sheet on the 
Homeless).  In Tulsa and Dallas, libraries have joined with social service 
agencies to help open shelters (with "a nonjudgmental atmosphere like that 
found in the library"), networked with other groups, and donated library 
In Portland and Milwaukee, libraries received federal grants for reading 
rooms in homeless centers.  A new library in Massachusetts will include a 
Acommunity room for the homeless, with easy chairs, coffee maker, TV, 
paperbacks, magazines, newspapers, and information on local homelessness 
organizations.  San Francisco is now offering library cards to people 
without permanent addresses.  They and the Philadelphia public library 
provide children at shelters with story hours and films.  The New York 
Public Library operates five projects for the homeless.  Some libraries 
produce information cards, listing agencies and phone numbers; others 
operate up-to-date central information and referral services.  And many 
libraries have literacy programs which benefit the homeless. 
In these days of desperation, libraries that try to maintain the principles 
of equal access and empowerment will do the most to ultimately tip the 
scales of economic justice.  As the saying goes, and goes for both rich and 
poor: "Libraries will get you through times of no money better than money 
will get you through times of no libraries."  And compassion, imagination, 
and cooperation may get us through both. 
May-June 1992 
12. El Cinco de Mayo (5 Mayo) -  History 
 From: Robert Vazquez <rvazquez[at]> Subject: El Cinco de Mayo - 
5th of May, 
  "El Cinco de Mayo," or fifth of May, commemorates the triumphant victory 
of the Mexican forces over the French interventionists in 1862. The highly 
outnumbered Mexican force s acquitted themselves in a valiant manner 
against the highly trained and equipped French Army led by Veteran General 
Charles Ferdinand Latrille de Lorencz. 
  The over confident French Forces figured they would have an easy march 
from the port city of Veracruz to Mexico City.  However, the Mexican forces 
commanded by General Ignacio Zaragosa and Brigadier General Diaz, 
outclassed and outmaneuvered the stunned stunned French Army which was 
humiliatingly defeated in the fortified city of Puebla. 
  General Zaragosa, managed his troops with rare aplomp. The decisive 
manuever of the day was carried out by Brigadier General Diaz, who repelled 
a determined assault on Gen. Zaragosa's right flank. The dejected French 
invaders, many veterans of more glorio us days, retreated to the city of 
Orizaba. Hence, May 5 ---"El Cinco de Mayo,"--- was added to the National 
Calendar of Holidays in honor of this heroic Mexican Victory. 
  About a year later, after receiving 30,000 reinforcements from France, 
the French forces led by General Elie Forey surrounded the city of Puebla 
and bombarded it into submission. However, the glorious "Cinco de Mayo," 
Mexican victory, marked the beginning of the end for the French 
Intervention in Mexico. 
  "El Cinco de Mayo," is an official holiday in Mexico and is celebrated 
with a host of festivals, military parades, and formal and official 
gatherings of elite social and political leaders. 
  In America, the 5th of May, is celebrated by Mexican Americans in a 
similar fashion, but without all the conventional formality. Hispanics 
commemorate this day with outdoor folk concerts, picnics, dances, youth 
parades, and other related festivals and ac tivities. "El Cinco de Mayo," 
offers Hispanics in the USA, the opportunity to touch base with their 
cultural heritage, and to take pride in one of Mexico's great military 
"LaRed Latina" WWW site: 
13. Reclaiming May Day - American History from an anarchist perspective 
                          RECLAIMING MAY DAY 
	For those of us schooled here in the U.S. the International Workers 
holiday known as May Day has little or no significance in our lives.  Many 
Americans think it has something to do with the change of seasons and the 
ancient festivals celebrating nature and the season of fertility and 
rebirth.  To others it brings to mind giant military parades past the 
Kremlin and the various dictators and bureaucrats that ruled the Marxist 
states over the years.  May Day somehow came to be a communist holiday in 
the minds of many Americans.  In reality May Day is as American as mom and 
apple pie!! 
	In 1886, a new labor organization was forming as the national 
center of the emerging labor movement; it was called the American 
Federation of Labor. It was led by men like Adolph Strasser, Peter Maguire 
and Samuel Gompers most including Gompers were socialists or marxists or 
both.  The organization adopted the following to the preamble of it's 
		"A struggle is going on in the nations of the world between 
the oppressors and the oppressed of all countries, a struggle between 
capital and labor which must grow in intensity from year to year and work 
disastrous results to the toiling millions of all nations if not combined 
for mutual protection and benefit."* 
	Seeing class struggle and the strike as it's most powerful weapons 
the AFofL sought to use the demand for an eight hour work day as a means of 
organizing the working people of the country into a fighting force.  At 
it's convention in 1884 it resolved that all labor should come together on 
May 1, 1886 to demand the establishment of the eight hour work day. 
	Despite the fierce resistance of the industrialists, monopolists, 
the press and some of the contending forces within the blooming labor 
movement like Terence V Powderly of the Knights of Labor, the eight hour 
work day was supported by most working people. A popular song of the 
workers of the day reflects their sentiments: 
"We mean to make things over We're tired of toil for nought But bare enough 
to live on; never An hour for thought. We want to feel the sunshine: we 
Want to smell the flowers We're sure that God has willed it And we mean to 
have eight hours. We're summoning our forces from Shipyards,  shop and mill 
Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest Eight hours for what we will!"** 
	In Chicago two anarchist labor organizers worked feverishly to 
convince the unions to support the May 1 action.  In the months leading up 
to the event Albert Parsons and August Spies addressed crowds of many 
thousands of working people, to favor the cause.  In the process they made 
themselves the targets of the newspapers that had been calling for a 
"communist carcass for every lamp post,"* in their headlines and editorial 
	On the morning of May 1, 1886 a crowd of some 80,000 people lined 
the streets of the city of Chicago ready to march for the eight-hour day. 
Across the nation 340,000 had not gone to work, about 190,000 of them were 
on strike for the eight hour day.*  In the back streets and alleys and on 
the roofs and in the armories the Chicago Citizens Committee, made up of 
the city's most affluent and powerful citizens, had an army made up of the 
police, Pinkertons, militia, national guard and private military companies. 
All fully armed and ready to put down what they thought would be a workers 
insurrection along the lines of the Paris Commune. An editorial in the 
morning newspaper the Mail read:  "There are two dangerous ruffians at 
large in this city; two skulking cowards who are trying to create trouble. 
One of them is named Parsons; the other is named Spies. . . "Mark them for 
today.  Keep them in view.  Hold them personally responsible for any 
trouble that occurs. Make an example of them if trouble does occur."** 
All this preparation for violence was a waste of time; the parade took 
place without any trouble. After a final speech by Spies, festivities were 
over and May 1 came to a close. 
Two days later on Monday the strike was spreading, and some workers were 
gaining the eight hour day.  The police no doubt frustrated by the lack of 
action on May 1 found some relief by clubbing the locked out  workers at 
the Mc Cormick Harvester Company as they escorted scabs into the plant.  At 
the end of the workday a large crowd of these workers were assembled 
outside the plant waiting for the scabs to come out.  The police charged 
them with their guns drawn.  The workers began to flee and the police 
opened fire shooting them in the back as they ran and killing six. Outraged 
by this act of barbarity, which he had witnessed, Spies organized a protest 
against police violence to be held the next day at Haymarket Square. 
	The crowd for the demonstration was larger than expected and 
included the mayor of the city.  After hearing Parsons declare at the 
beginning of his speech, "I am not here for the purpose of inciting 
anybody," he stopped at the near-by police station and informed the police 
captain John "Clubber" Bonfield, that the meeting was peaceful and he 
should dismiss the police that had been mobilized for the event. 
	Despite the mayor's instructions the police marched on the crowd, 
which was disbanding because of a storm that was brewing.  As Bonfield 
demanded the peaceful assembly disperse peacefully someone threw a bomb. 
One officer was killed outright and seven others were fatally wounded in 
the chaos that insued as the police fired their weapons indiscriminately 
and clubbed anyone within reach. 
	The nations press became hysterical, declaring that, "it made no 
difference whether Parsons, Spies, or Fielden had or had not thrown the 
bomb.  They should be hanged for their political views, for their words and 
general activities and if more trouble makers were given to the hangman so 
much the better."*  As only two of the indicted men were present and both 
Schwab and Fielden  were on the wagon in full view of the police and the 
crowd, they were tried for exactly those reasons, their political beliefs, 
associations and their speech.  That all of these are freedoms guaranteed 
by the Constitution made no difference. 
	In the middle of a virtual police reign of  terror where the 
foreign born and union leaders were randomly arrested and tortured in 
cities across the country, homes were invaded and doors broken in, and the 
presses of foreign newspapers were smashed, eight men were indicted.  All 
avowed anarchists, Albert Parsons, August Spies, Samuel Fielden Michael 
Schwab, George Engel, Adolph Fischer, Louis Lingg, and Oscar Neebe would 
stand trial for conspiracy to murder Mathias J. Degan, the police officer 
that was slain when the bomb was thrown at the Haymarket. 
	Convicted by a packed jury, perjured testimony, a judge determined 
to hang, the verdict was a mere formality.  Oscar Neebe received fifteen 
years, all the others were sentenced to death. The U.S. Supreme Court 
refused to examine the case and the execution date was set for November 11, 
The day before the execution Governor Oglesby commuted the death sentences 
of Fielden and Schwab.  The night before the executions Louis Lingg 
committed suicide using a dynamite cartridge which he placed in his mouth 
and lit the fuse.  Dynamite was the thing that Lingg was most closely 
associated.  As an anarchist he did not recognize the right of the state to 
take his life. 
 On November 11, 1887, known the world over as Black Friday by anarchists, 
Parsons, Spies, Fischer and Engles stood on the gallows.  From beneath his 
hood Spies spoke, "The time will come when our silence will be more 
powerful than the voices you strangle today."  "Hurrah for Anarchy!" 
Fischer cried out.  "Hurrah for Anarchy cried Engles even louder.  "This is 
the happiest moment of my life!" said Fischer.  Parsons asked "Will I be 
allowed to speak, O men of America?  Let me speak Sheriff Matson!  Let the 
voice of the people be heard. O---."*  The trap doors were sprung and 
labors greatest martyrs were history. 
 In 1888 the American Federation of Labor set May 1, 1889 as the day of 
action for the eight-hour day.  The following year in Paris the newly 
formed International Association of Working People, voted to support the 
eight hour day struggle and set May 1st 1890 to show their support.  On 
that day workers all over Europe and America demonstrated by holding 
meetings and parades to support the eight-hour workday.  Thus was born the 
International May Day, celebrated all over the world by working people to 
this day. 
On June 26, 1893, the Governor of the state of Illinois, John Peter Atgeld, 
granted an unconditional pardon to Fielden, Schwab and Neeb because they 
had been wrongfully convicted and were innocent. In a statement he made 
along with the pardon the governor made clear his feelings concerning the 
trial. "He,denounced the trial in all its aspects-from the selection of the 
jurors and the testimony of the witnesses to the behavior of the judge and 
the prosecutor- as a shameless travesty of justice."*** 
	Most of us educated in the schools of this country do not learn 
about May Day and it's origins.  Even in the colleges and universities 
labor history is a rarity.  People in this country have been given a 
negative image of Labor Unions and the Unions have long ago abandoned the 
struggle to replace the system of wage slavery.  More than one hundred 
years since the first May Day the length of the working day is still eight 
hours.  All the social programs won through the struggles of working people 
are now being taken away and the nations power and wealth is more 
concentrated than ever before. When Ronald Reagan broke the Air Traffic 
Controllers Union, the labor unions were unwilling or unable to call a 
general strike.  This demonstrated the weakness of the nationalist oriented 
business unionism that was started by the AFof L founder Samuel Gompers, a 
believer in Craft Unionism. 
	This May Day is a Friday, take the day off ask some of your friends 
at work to do the same.  Make a day of it do something fun and most 
important talk about May Day and the Haymarket  Tragedy.  If you have 
children find out what is being taught about labor history in their 
textbooks and in school. Tell them about May Day encourage them to bring it 
up in class.  Talk to your friends about having a four-hour workday without 
any reduction in pay. It would be a great way to start to redistribute some 
of the wealth.  Talk to your friends about the need for strong labor 
organizations that can resist the corporations, which threaten to destroy 
the entire planet in their greed driven search for profit. 
	Lets reclaim May Day for all working people and let us not forget 
the struggle and sacrifice of our American labor heroes, Albert Parsons, 
August Spies, Samuel Fielden, Michael Schwab, George Engel, Adolph Fischer, 
Louis Ling and Oscar Neeb. 
                                             HURRAH FOR ANARCHY!! 
                                                  HAPPY MAY DAY!! 
Jay Brophy 
*Labors Untold Story by Richard O. Boyer & Herbert M. Morais   ISBN  NUMBER 
***The Haymarket Tragedy by Paul Avert ISBN NUMBER 0-691-04711-1 
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Web Page created by Text2Web v1.3.6 by Dev Virdi
Date: Thursday, October 29, 1998 12:10 PM