Library Juice 5:1 Supplement, January 3, 2002
The Invisibility of the Alternative Press
Republished with the author's permission.
This paper was originally written for LIS 591 (Publishing), a course
offered at the School of Library and Information Studies at the University
of Alberta. It was converted to a Web document to fulfill the
requirements of LIS 600 (Capping Exercise). Any questions or comments can
be directed to Tami Oliphant at oliphant[at]ualberta.ca.
It's 7:30 a.m., and the buzzing alarm wakes Citizen X. Citizen X lingers
in bed listening to a news broadcast on the radio. After a brief shower,
Citizen X scans the day's headlines for a few minutes before heading off
to work. Work involves Internet searching. Citizen X returns home,
watches TV for half an hour and then decides to go to a movie. On the way
to the theatre, she stops in a bookstore and purchases a magazine, a CD,
and a book. After the movie, Citizen X returns home and goes to bed in
preparation for another busy day. Imagine that each media item Citizen X
used, bought, or read was owned by the same company whose head offices
were in another country. Now imagine that you are Citizen X.
In an era of mega-conglomerates, the above scenario is becoming more
probable. In 1983, 50 media conglomerates dominated the U.S. mass media
(McChesney 21). Presently, approximately 5 companies dominate mass media
globally. It is not only the sheer size of these corporations that
concerns media watchdogs, but the alarming trend towards vertical
integration. Currently, many of these companies not only dominate a
selective medium like newspapers, but they also control cable TV, movie
studios, publishing houses, music companies, and TV production studios.
Vertical integration enables companies to increase market power by
cross-promoting a show, magazine, or book. In Canada, companies like
CanWest Global own newspapers, TV stations, radio broadcasting, and
interactive media (CanWest screen 1). Consequently, vertical integration
results in a stranglehold on all forms of media.
Compounding the problem is what Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky describe in
the acclaimed work, Manufacturing Consent, as a "propaganda model of media
control". Their argument is that market forces act as "filters" which
determine what news is "fit to print". One of these filters is simply the
nature of media ownership. The sheer size, concentrated ownership,
immense owner wealth, and quest for profit of the dominant media
corporations mean that business priorities can, and do, shape editorial
content (Cromwell 34).
David Cromwell provides evidence of these assertions. "In a 1992 U.S.
study of 150 newspaper editors, 90 percent reported that advertisers tried
to interfere with newspaper content while 70 percent said advertisers
tried to stop new stories altogether" (34). Cromwell scathingly describes
mainstream media as "an integral part of a system of institutionalized
greed and violence that is destroying cultures and ecosystems around the
planet" (34). In Canada, the situation is equally dire -- eight
corporations own 90 out of the 105 daily newspapers. Among these
companies, Conrad Black owns 27.5 of all newspapers and CanWest Global
owns 26.5 (Dyck par. 12).
Almost every aspect of our lives are subject to market forces, and the
justification for maintaining the established structure of the market is
based on the Darwinist concept that only the fittest survive. However, in
this case the stakes are high. We are not talking about socks, we are
talking about culture, books, ideas, our collective history, and possibly
our very humanness -- every intangible item that defies the accountant's
ledger. In an era of convergences and mega-conglomerates there is a need
now, more than ever, for alternatives to mainstream media. In order to
combat the homogenization of the media, our society needs alternative
voices. On a macro level, a healthy democratic society needs dissent,
debate, and discussion, and I believe that we have an obligation to speak
for those who are disenfranchised from the system.
So what exactly is the "alternative press"? According to Benet's Reader's
Encyclopedia of American Literature, it is "a name usually applied
specifically to small, often short-lived avant-garde publications that
serve as focal points for literary heterodoxy, are intended for a small
audience, and are not commercially oriented. These periodicals have often
been the only means of expression available to new and experimental
writers swimming against the current of established literary tradition"
("Little" 625). In actuality, the definition of "alternative press" is
much more amorphous and fuzzy than the above definition. For example,
some magazines like The Utne Reader and the New Internationalist are
considered "alternative" but they have national or international
distribution, whereas other magazines like Wired boast a subscription base
of 400,000; it is definitely not "small". Furthermore, there are many
established writers who choose to write for alternative publications.
"Alternative" can be reduced to mean anything that is not mainstream, but
this begs the question, when are "alternative" publications considered
Distribution and Other Obstacles
With the hijacking of mass media by mega-conglomerates, publishers of
alternative materials face unprecedented hurdles, particularly in the area
of distribution. Distribution is key for a publication to remain visible,
to reach a broad audience, to remain accessible, and ultimately for the
publication's survival. Specifically, problems with wholesalers,
indexing, and reviewing media impact on the survival and viability of the
alternative press. In the present system the bottom line dictates that
marginally profitable titles must be purged from wholesaler distribution
to achieve maximum profits. As a result, it is becoming increasingly
difficult for alternative publications to overcome the distribution hurdle
and remain on newsstands, in bookstores, and in libraries.
Mega mergers are not just a media phenomenon; wholesalers and distributors
are subject to the merger trend also. In 1999, four major wholesalers,
Andersen News, Levy/Unimag, The News Group, and Hudson News controlled
over 80% of the U.S. market. Industry estimates are that this number will
eventually rise to 90% (Owens and Ennis 12). Larger, more powerful
wholesalers have begun the process of purging themselves of unprofitable
titles, imposing handling fees, and setting across-the-board efficiency
standards. Publishers who are dependent on the distribution of
mass-market accounts may have little recourse.
During the same year, Andersen News found that 1,700 of the 4,700 magazines
it handles account for more than 90% of the company's retail sales. As of
December 6, 1999, 3,000 of the titles were no longer funneled through
Andersen's 50 primary distribution centres around the country. The
remaining magazines (36%) are now routed to a National Production Center
where Andersen determines how many copies of each title will be
distributed to its retail clients including ma and pa shops and the chain
stores (Granatstein 98). Andersen has created a two-tiered system for
In addition, Andersen now requires publishers to pay all the handling and
distribution costs for their titles. While most of the larger publishing
houses are able to absorb the extra costs, the small, independent
magazines will be the most burdened by the new pricing structure
(Granatstein 98). As well, The News Group has also stopped distribution
on 20% of their titles (Lefevre 56). Their strategy is to devote more
shelf space to better-selling titles, which effectively cuts off small run
As of February 2001, 30,000 retail accounts that sold magazines only a few
years ago are not being serviced by the major distributors. As well,
changes in magazine distribution and the proliferation of new magazines
tend to lead to numerous new magazine failures, particularly as
wholesalers are consolidated into just a handful of major players that
deliver 90% of the magazines to U.S. newsstands (Buss 42).
Lowenstein argues that some titles have remained viable by going through
second-tier distributors and wholesalers that encourage greater visibility
for their titles in less-congested, smaller shops. This targeted
distribution is presumed to work because specialty magazines in specialty
stores should attract the customers most interested in the subject, and
thus those who are most likely to make a purchase. Another way small
magazines are becoming more efficient is by shipping their titles straight
to the retailer and bypassing the wholesalers. The retailer cannot return
any of the unsold items, but the publisher's discount they receive
up-front alleviates costs for the retailer (Lowenstein, "Small" 158).
In a separate article, Lowenstein further explores the possibilities of
second-tier distribution. Several smaller companies have picked up titles
dropped from the larger wholesalers. Lowenstein cites BigTop Publisher
Services, a San Francisco based distributor as a success story. Their
distribution list includes alternative titles and their number of
offerings has increased from 7 to 48 in the past two years (Lowenstein,
"Dealing" 155). Big Top's titles average a 70% sell through rate as
compared with Andersen's 38-45% rate (Lefevre 56; Lowenstein, "Dealing"
However, even these encouraging statistics do not tell the entire story.
First, specialty stores that devote space to specialty titles will have a
difficult time surviving if they are forced to rely on specialty title
sales alone; media outlets need the revenue generated from mainstream
sales in order to offer specialty titles. Not only is the alternative
press less visible in the general sphere, but now a potential purchaser
will have to track down a specific store that carries the title. It is
still a distribution problem. In this way, specialty stores that are
"less-congested" and carry specialty titles are being ghettoized.
Furthermore, in an era of budget cuts to libraries, a decline in the
numbers of independent bookstores, and the bottom line of many monolithic
chains, even second-tiered distribution may not guarantee the right
coverage to the right audience, particularly in areas outside of large
Ultimately, what this implies is that any magazines with smaller newsstand
sales, targeted audiences, or niche publishers will suffer distribution
problems. Simply put, alternative publications will not be on the shelves
because they do not meet the required profit margin. Compounding the
problem is that many niche publications need to be available nationally or
internationally in order to reach their targeted audience. For example,
the magazine Girlfriends, a publication aimed at lesbians, must have a
large distribution base because the number of lesbians in a given location
may not be enough to sustain the publication. In addition, it is just as
important, if not more important, for lesbians living in Wyoming to have
access to a publication that reflects their demographic, their interests,
and their lives, as it is for lesbians living in large urban centres.
Furthermore, many commercial alternative publications either refuse
advertising or eschew certain advertisers. The result of this ethical
stance is that some budgets take a beating. Often, there is no financial
cushion to fall back on. Many of these publications rely on
subscriptions, donations, and newsstand sales. If there are fewer and
fewer outlets for newsstand, bookstore, and library sales, survival is
The problem with wholesalers and distributors is not restricted to North
America, nor to print media. In the U.K., the founder of the program
Undercurrents, whose mission is to cover the news stories the news is not
covering, cited distribution of their videos as their main obstacle.
Eighty percent of video distribution is controlled by two chains in the
U.K., and as a result Undercurrents discovered that interested parties did
not know where they could purchase their videos (Cobbing 24).
Distribution and wholesaling is the major obstacle in accessing alternative
press publications. The majority of these publications have a profit
margin that renders them irrelevant to large wholesalers with national
distribution. The shift towards distributing only those items that garner
the most profits directly impacts on those publishers with a small
subscription base. These publications cannot compete for newsstand
presence, and more often than not they lack a sufficient financial
cushion. As a result, the system renders the alternative press invisible.
Another way the alternative press remains invisible is through indexing or
the lack thereof. Large indexing and abstracting companies often overlook
alternative publications in their indexes and in their databases. In all
fairness, some large indexing companies claim there is not a great demand
for alternative publications and that is the reason why coverage may be
lacking in the indexes (Ardito 17).
Stephanie Ardito conducted an informal survey of eleven independently owned
magazines mentioned frequently in library literature. Each title was
searched in the 1999 edition of Ulrich's International Periodicals
Directory. Six of the eleven magazines were not indexed in "mainstream"
or high subscription database services. However, neither circulation nor
readership demand seemed to impact on whether or not the title was
indexed. For example, The Source (370,000 circulation) was not indexed,
and Wired (400,000 circulation) appears in only two databases. Yet, two
publications with a lower subscription base, The Utne Reader (260,000
circulation) and The Village Voice (248,000 circulation), appear in
several sources (16). Neither the age of the publication, the subject
matter, nor geographical scope, impacted on whether or not the magazine
This informal study raises two main questions: when does an "alternative"
publication become "mainstream" enough to be included in an index?; and
how is a publication deemed worthy of inclusion in an index?
A study done by Lisa Pillow examined the adequacy of indexing for several
scholarly African American studies journals. The databases selected for
this study were electronic indexing services that are commonly found in
large research libraries. The researcher, after analysing the coverage of
African American journals in several different databases, concludes that
"the state of indexing for the interdisciplinary field of African American
studies is inadequate: no one service provides comprehensive coverage of
core scholarly journals. . . The 11 services included in the study
indexed only 66 percent of the 1997 literature" (5).
On an international level, the problem of indexing is particularly acute.
A report by W. Wayt Gibbs revealed that many international scientists were
excluded from indexes. Commercial indexing services virtually ignore the
vast majority of the world's journals. Gibbs reports that "although
developing countries encompass 24.1 percent of the world's scientists and
5.3 percent of its research spending, most leading journals publish far
smaller proportions of articles . . . from those regions" (Raloff 55).
In addition, Raloff relates the struggles of one Mexican medical journal to
gain inclusion in the Science Citation Index (SCI):
"Though some abstracting services cover non-English journals, the editor of
one Mexican medical journal noted that it had to provide English abstracts
for its articles, publish on time, and buy a $10,000 subscription to SCI
in order to qualify for inclusion. In 1982, hard times hit and the
journal could no longer meet those conditions. Since then, it has
struggled unsuccessfully to get back into SCI -- despite the fact that it
now publishes solely in English, has a U.S. editor to avoid translation
errors, and has even recruited an editorial board of the top-cited Mexican
scientists in the field and an international review board" (56).
Furthermore, even if a title is indexed in an online database, the full
text of the article may not be available. Many times, a periodical cannot
be found in the local library collection, nor at local bookstores and
newsstands. How many people are willing or able to wait for their
information? It is a perpetual cycle -- if people are not aware of or
cannot access alternative press publications, no demand will be made for
them and ultimately they will continue to be excluded from indexes, where
again no one will be aware of them.
Although many reviewing journals attempt to be as inclusive as possible,
one must be aware of the differing criteria among reviewing journals. In
some cases, being reviewed in a journal is an endorsement for that title,
whereas other journals will review a wide range of titles with a critical
eye. Furthermore, it is just as important to remember what materials are
not included in reviewing journals as what materials are included, because
the vast majority of published materials rarely make it into reviewing
media. Some omitted categories of titles include the following:
cookbooks, travel guides, reference works, cartoon books, how-to books,
inspirational books, self-help books, scholarly books, and genre fiction
Reviews are often sales tools (Woodward 92) and as a result, larger
publishing companies have advantages over smaller publishers; they have
signed established authors who generate more coverage in the form of
frequent reviews in numerous sources, thereby creating access to wider
audiences. For example, "Farrar Straus & Giroux, estimates that Tom
Wolfe's A Man in Full garnered reviews and interviews 'in the hundreds'"
(Woodward 93). Although reviewing journals may intend to remain
independent, the larger corporations have a greater ability to ensure
their titles are included in reviewing journals.
Libraries are often one of the few, and perhaps one of the only places,
where marginalized sectors of the public can gain access to alternative
publications. However, reliance on mainstream reviewing media for
collection development can have dire consequences. In the most recent
issue of Feliciter, Toni Samek succinctly describes the problems that
librarians face when attempting to offer a diverse range of materials:
"Self-censorship also plays out on a more unconscious level. Because of
the profession's heavy reliance on mainstream review media, publishers and
vendors, materials produced by the alternative press and those that
reflect alienated social sectors are often under-represented in library
Self-censorship has broad-reaching implications: the reliance on mainstream
sources favours not only establishment cultural interests but also
economic, social and political interests" (41).
The exclusion of the alternative press from mainstream reviewing media --
reviewing journals, newspapers, magazines, and television -- makes it
difficult for alternative publications to become part of current social
The development of some initiatives indicates that publishers of
alternative materials are organizing and developing methods to combat
their current status. In the same way that independent bookstores are
fighting the chains, alternative newsweeklies are banding together to form
a national advertising network, an online syndicate service, and
establishing a central office. The Association of Alternative
Newsweeklies (AAN) is the trade organization for alternative newspapers in
North America. AAN is a diverse group of 120 non-daily publications, most
of which are free circulation papers. There is at least one AAN member in
every major metropolitan area, and many others publish in smaller markets.
Another example is the Small Press Distribution in Berkeley, California,
the only nonprofit wholesaler dedicated exclusively to distributing books
from small and medium size presses. They teamed up with Poets & Writers
to promote small presses in independent bookstores (Rosen 28).
For some publishers of alternative materials, distribution is via record
stores, gigs, bookstores, or other smaller channels. For example, one way
that zine writers use to combat the problem of distribution is networking
and community building. Much of the networking that goes on among zine
communities is directed towards creating a self-supporting infrastructure
-- a marginal economy (Sabto 815). This economy exists outside of any
The Alternative Press Online
The 2000 "Battle of Seattle" marked the first time in history that the
Internet was successfully used as a political and organizational tool.
The Internet is often thought of as the "great equalizer": anyone can
launch a site for relatively little expense. The proliferation of online
zines and alternative publications seems to provide evidence to support
the idea that the Internet is indeed the "great equalizer". Some argue
that because of the "democratic" nature of the Internet, anyone can
compete with the mega-conglomerates in the online environment.
Upon closer examination, it becomes evident that the above assertions are,
in fact, erroneous. After seven years, the Internet has not spawned a
competitive media marketplace; as McChesney points out, the giants have
too many advantages to be seriously challenged. First, the giants have
the capital, the programming, the brand names, the advertisers, and the
promotional prowess to rule the Internet (20). Second, there are problems
with indexing in search engines. It's great if an individual posts a Web
site, but if it is not indexed on the major search engines no one is going
to see it. Third, the Internet is accessible only to those who can afford
computer equipment and sustained Internet access.
For the month of February 2001, the Top 10 Nielsen NetRatings Rankings
included at number one position, AOL Time Warner, and at number seven, the
Walt Disney Internet Group. These rankings are calculated according to
how many hits a Web site receives in a given period of time ("What" screen
1). It appears that McChesney's thesis is accurate: the giants have
access to far more resources, get indexed with greater consistency and
frequency, and thus dominate the Internet.
The hijacking of media outlets by the mega-conglomerates has resulted in
the marginalization of the alternative press and contributed to the
homogenization of the mainstream press. The greatest obstacle for
alternative publications regarding access issues is distribution. What is
particularly problematic is that alternative publications need to be made
available to a broader audience, due to the fact that their target
audience is typically smaller than any of the mainstream publications.
The lack of wholesalers willing to distribute small-profit alternative
publications, the lack of inclusion in indexes, and the reliance on
mainstream reviewing journals and vendors to develop collections has
rendered the alternative press, at the very best, marginalized, and at the
very worst, invisible.
In our era of globalization and mega-conglomeration we are defined as
"consumers", not "citizens". Ultimately, concentrated corporate control
of the media is harmful to democracy. We need dissenting points of view,
we need avenues for personal and cultural expression, and we need the
platforms and vehicles to disseminate these alternative points of view.
To be able to choose between a hundred things that are all essentially the
same thing, is no choice at all.
Ardito, Stephanie C. "The Alternative Press: Newsweeklies and Zines."
Database Magazine 44.3 (1999): 14-21.
Buss, Dale. "10 Reasons New Magazines Fail." Folio: The Magazine for
Magazine Management 30.2 (2001): 41-43.
CanWest Global Communications Corp. 23 March 2001. CanWest Global
Communications Corp. 30 March 2001 <http://www.canwestglobal.com/>.
Cobbing, Nick. "Might Not Main." Whose News? (Mar. 24, 1995): 24-26.
Cromwell, David. "The Hack and Flack Machine." New Internationalist 328
Dyck, Perry Rand. Canadian Politics: Critical Approaches. 3rd ed., text
updates. 2000. Nelson Thompson Learning. 30 March 2001
Granatstein, Lisa. "Wholesale Changes." Mediaweek 9.36 (1999): 98-99.
Howard, Gerhard. "The Cultural Ecology of Book Reviewing." Publishing
Books. Ed. Everette E. Dennis, Craig L. LaMay, and Edward C. Pease. New
Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997. 75-91.
Lefevre, Lori. "Wholesalers Toughen Up." Mediaweek 10.28 (2000): 56.
"Little Magazines." Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature.
1st ed. 1991.
Lowenstein, Joanna. "Dealing With Distribution Uncertainty." Folio: The
Magazine for Magazine Management 27.18 (1999): 158-159.
---. "Small Distributors: A Healthy Choice." Folio: The Magazine for
Magazine Management 27.18 (1999): 155.
McChesney, Robert W. "Oligopoly: The Big Media Game Has Fewer and Fewer
Players." The Progressive (1999): 20-24.
Owens, Jennifer, and Teresa Ennis. "Latest Wholesaler Merger Shrinks Major
Players to Four." Folio: The Magazine for Magazine Management 28.2
Pillow, Lisa. "Scholarly African American Studies Journals: An Evaluation
of Electronic Indexing Service Coverage." Serials Review 25.4 (1999):
Raloff, J. "New Efforts to Decloak 'Invisible' Science." Science News
148.4 (1995): 55.
Rosen, Judith. "Small is Beautiful." Publisher's Weekly 247.49 (2000):
Sabto, Michele. "Lo-Fi Tales." Meanjin 57.4 (1998): 809-815.
Samek, Toni. "Introducing Intellectual Freedom into the Canadian LIS
Curriculum." Feliciter 47.1 (2001): 40-43.
"What are the Most Popular Web Sites?: Nielsen NetRatings Rankings."
2001. About.com. 30 March 2001
Woodward, Richard. "Reading in the Dark." The Village Voice 44.42
Dilevko, Juris. "Collection Development Patterns of Fiction Titles in
Public Libraries: The Place of Independent and Small Presses." Library &
Information Science Research 22.1 (2000): 35-59.
Duncombe, Stephen. Notes From Underground: Zines and the Politics of
Alternative Culture. London: Verso, 1997.
Farmian, Roxane. "Alternative Marketing Gives Santa Monica Press a Lift."
Publisher's Weekly ( June 1999): 20.
Goldman, Nancy. "Sources for Finding Alternative Media." Video Collection
Development in Multi-type Libraries: A Handbook. Ed. Gary P. Handman.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 373-99.
Gremillion, Jeff. "Can Smaller Niches Bring Riches?" Media Week 7.39
Kelleher, James B. "Alternative Papers." Columbia Journalism Review 38.6
Marinko, Rita A., and Kristin H. Gerhard. "Representations of the
Alternative Press in Academic Library Collections." College & Research
Libraries 59.7 (1998): 363-377.
Moses, Lucia. "Consider the Alternatives." Editor & Publisher 132.22
Pollitt, Katha. "Their Press and Ours." The Nation 265.15 (1997): 9.
Samek, Toni. "Intellectual Freedom within the Profession: A Look Back at
Freedom of Expression and the Alternative Library Press." Counterpoise
4.1/2 (2000): 10-16.
Van Dyke, Geoff. "Circ Challenges Abound." Folio: The Magazine for
Magazine Management 30.1 (2001): 55-57.
Zellar, Brad. "New Rivers Press Shuts Down." Publisher's Weekly 248.9
The following list is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather it is
intended to provide the reader with examples of what is available on the
Adbusters -- a magazine run by The Media Foundation, a global network of
artists, activists, writers, pranksters, students, educators, and
Broken Pencil -- The Guide to Alternative Culture in Canada
Canadian Dimension -- a magazine run by an editorial collective, it
provides an independent forum for debate on a broad range of issues
Magomania -- Canada's Magazine Search Engine
Peace Magazine -- provides commentary on disarmament, conflict resolution,
nonviolent sanctions, and peace institutions
This Magazine -- has been published for 33 years, it is one of Canada's
longest-published alternative journals (http://www.THISmag.org/)
Alternative Comics -- covers independent, alternative, and self-published
comic books, featuring news, interviews, and reviews
Alternative Press 1986+ -- University of Missouri
Alternative Press Center -- non-profit collective founded in 1969
Alternative Press Collection -- University of Connecticut Libraries
Alternative Press Online -- music focus
Alternative Press Review -- Your Guide Beyond the Mainstream
Alternatives In Print Task Force -- a group of professional librarians that
work to promote the acquisition and use of alternative materials
Association of Alternative Newsweeklies -- the trade organization for
alternative newspapers in North America (http://www.aan.org/)
Chicago Great Lakes Underground Press Collection -- a digital collection of
zines -- De Paul University Libraries
Editor & Publisher -- 116-year-old magazine that covers the newspaper
industry in North America (http://www.mediainfo.com/)
Ezines Database -- a database of alternative publications run by InfoJump
Factsheet Five -- a reviewing zine of zines (http://www.factsheet5.com/)
Independent Press Association -- works to promote and support independent
publications committed to social justice and a free press
Institute for Global Communications -- mission to advance the work of
progressive organizations and individuals (http://www.igc.org/igc/)
Low Bandwidth -- a database of ezines, newsletters and journals
A Reader's Guide to the Underground Press -- features news, small-press
reviews, letters, and other information (http://www.undergroundpress.org/)
Small Press Distribution Books Online -- non-profit literary arts
Supersphere -- click on Zinetropa for resource guide links
Underground Press Collections -- a digital collection of underground
newspapers from 1963-1985 -- University of Missouri
Utne Reader -- Alternative Press Awards (http://www.utne.com/apa/)
Zinebook.com -- zine resource centre (http://www.zinebook.com/)
Little Magazines, Alternative Press, and Poetry Store Collections --
University College of London
New Internationalist -- an international co-operative based in Oxford
Squall -- a forum for radical quality journalism and photography
AlterNet.org -- on online magazine, information source, and community that
combines quality journalism, public interest content, interactivity, and
links to useful resources (http://www.alternet.org/)
Mining Co. -- renamed About provides online guides to a wide range of
The Onion -- (http://www.theonion.com/)
Salon.com -- (http://www.salon.com/)
Slate -- (http://slate.msn.com/)
Last Updated 9 April 2001
E-mail: Tami Oliphant (oliphant[at]ualberta.ca)
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