Library Juice 6:6 - March 14, 2003

Special issue:

"Intellectual Freedom within the Profession: A Look back at Freedom of Expression And the Alternative Library Press"

by Dr. Toni Samek, Assistant Professor, School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta

Originally published in Counterpoise 4(1/2), Spring 2000, and slightly revised.

Momentum for an alternative library press was slow to build. But by the 1960s, social protest movements in larger society were mirrored in American librarianship. Activist librarians became more socially aware through involvement in the causes and issues espoused by the era's alternative press. Some librarians were intrigued by the novelty of the messages in the alternative press, others by the freshness of the medium itself. When, for example, publications like The Oracle (San Francisco), The East Village Other (New York), The Fifth Estate (Detroit), The Paper (East Lansing), The Los Angeles Free Press (Los Angeles), and The Berkeley Barb (Berkeley) began attracting national recognition because they questioned the objectivity of the establishment press in the mid-1960s, a subset of American librarians took note. They began to publish their own alternative library press. This new wave of library titles created a fresh forum for activities on behalf of freedom of expression within the library profession. The new publications printed viewpoints not treated by mainstream library periodicals such as Library Journal, Wilson Library Bulletin, and American Libraries and challenged the conformity of the professional discourse.

For context, this article begins with a Selected Alternative Library Press Chronology that traces key contributions to the alternative library press in the United States from its origins in the late 1960s to recent times. While most of the alternative library titles included in the Chronology are American, Emergency Librarian and HERMÈS: revue critique (Canadian) and Librarians for Social Change and Information for Social Change (U.K.) are included to illustrate that the alternative library press is not restricted to the U.S. And while the Chronology reflects print publication, the article's closing comments highlight key electronic forums that evolved out of the alternative library print publication base.

Selected Alternative Library Press Chronology
(Revised since the publication in Counterpoise)
1967-1973 Synergy
1969 Liberated Librarian's Newsletter
1969-1979 Women Library Workers--continued as WLW Journal until 1994
1970-1995 Sipapu
1970- Women in Libraries
1971 Prejudices and Antipathies: A Tract on the LC Subject Heads Concerning People
1971-1980 Alternatives in Print
1971- Unabashed Librarian
1972 Revolting Librarians
1972-1984 Librarians for Social Change-continued as Social Change and Information Systems (1985-)
1972 Current Awareness-Library Literature
1973 Booklegger Magazine
1973-1979 Young Adult Alternative Newsletter
1973-1998 Emergency Librarian--continued as Teacher Librarian (1998-)
1975 The living Z : A Guide to the Literature of the Counter- culture, the Alternative Press, and Little Magazines
1977 On Equal Terms: A Thesaurus for Nonsexist Indexing and Cataloging
1978- VOYA, Voice of Youth Advocates
1979-1991 New Pages
1980- Feminist Collections
1982 Alternative Materials in Libraries
1984- Alternative Library Literature
1985- Social Change and Information Systems
1988-2000 MSRRT Newsletter
1990- Progressive Librarian
1993- Librarians at Liberty
1994- Information for Social Change
1994- Alternative Publishers of Books in North America
1995 Zoia! Memoirs of Zoia Horn, Battler for the People's Right to Know
1996 Alternative Literature: A Practical Guide for Librarians
1997- Counterpoise: For Social Responsibilities, Liberty and Dissent
1998 Poor People and Library Services
1998- HERMÈS: revue critique
1998- Library Juice
2003 Revolting Librarians Redux: Radical Librarians Speak Out

Each of the alternative library publications listed in the Chronology has a unique history. Because this article cannot accommodate each history, the author has chosen to profile three early alternative library titles in order to explore limitations to the freedom of expression that took place within library and information publishing in the formative years of the alternative library press's development. The three profiled titles are vanguard alternative library publications. They are also those titles for which the author has gathered the most primary research material. 1

The first title profiled is Synergy--a periodical that Library Journal called "a vital acquisition for ... feminist views ... and a superb ... example of lively, liberated library journalism." 2 Synergy paved the way for Revolting Librarians, Booklegger Magazine, Emergency Librarian, Alternatives in Print, Prejudices & Antipathies, and all of the other alternative library publications listed in the Chronology. But Synergy's staff did more than spur interest in the alternative press. These librarians also urged library professionals to address social issues and to recognize the political context of their work. Ultimately, this threatened a profession that prided itself on its "neutral stance" by raising the important question--was librarianship "neutral" when it came to the provision of access to any form of information?


In the late 1960s, the San Francisco Public Library's experimental Bay Area Reference Center (BARC) provided support reference services to 17 North Bay Cooperative Library System libraries scattered across six counties. BARC looked to non-commercial book publishers to find information on new areas of interest and in 1967 began to publish a monthly newsletter titled Synergy to serve as a reference tool and disseminate news of the project. Synergy's "Update" section listed outstanding new additions to the San Francisco Public Library reference collection, while another section included a bibliography of topical importance "not obtainable through usual channels." 3

San Francisco was a hotbed of social activity in 1967. From the city's 65,000-person anti-war demonstration held concomitantly with the Spring Mobilization Committee's New York City protest, to the influx of thousands of people for the "Summer of Love" activities, the Bay community manifested social change. 4 Celeste West, Synergy's first editor, commented on the relationship between San Francisco's transformation and the local library scene. She described the city as "a trend-mecca--whether it be communal living, campus riots, gay liberation, independent film making ... you name it and we've got it." But what San Francisco had, she argued, was not reflected in library collections unless somebody took the time to pull together "the elusive printed material." 5 Thus, Synergy began examining the nature of library card catalogs, indexes, and selecting tools because its staff believed that such tools were mostly "rear-view mirrors" that provided little or no bibliographic access to the public's current information needs.

Synergy's staff believed that because librarians were not sufficiently trained to create access to and/or learn about where to find many forms of information, they were unable to fulfill their professional mandate to present balanced/multiple points of view. The passive nature of library practice grounded on a myth of "neutral" service understated this information access problem. Because librarians were followers and not leaders in the information marketplace, alternative press related topics received attention only when big publishers sensed profit. Synergy consistently included information about neglected topics. The April-May, 1968 issue, for example, criticized conventional library literature's lack of attention to subjects like astrology, Native Americans, the women's liberation movement, ecology, the drug revolution, library service to prisoners, the occult, the family, the underground press, and the criticisms of the establishment. In subsequent issues, Synergy provided coverage of these and other topics. But Synergy stood for more than just information access. Under West's direction, it called on librarians to become "pivotal agents to enforce" the Library Bill of Rights (see Closing Comments), to support a free press, and to develop a new professional attitude by shifting from "conserving and organizing" information to "generating or promoting it." 6 Synergy defined an alternative library culture that worried less about the library as a keeper of the cultural record, and more about the library as an active agent for change.

For a number of years, as part of its effort to provide information about the alternative press and alternative library activity, Synergy's staff lobbied for the "Great Unreviewed," which constituted "60%+ of all books published." 7 Because standard reviewing journals like Kirkus Reviews, Publishers Weekly and Choice did not cover the alternative press, Synergy tried to fill the void. It encouraged subscribers to read intensively in their areas of specialty and to get involved in self-publication. But by the summer of 1973, problems arose.

In August, 1973, the SRRT Newsletter announced that California State librarian Ethel Crockett was terminating federal funding for Synergy--the journal that jump-started the library social responsibility movement in 1967. Crockett maintained that Title I of the Library Services and Construction Act funded demonstration projects for not more than two years and because Synergy had already received five, she told it to seek financial assistance elsewhere. 8 But while Crockett initially claimed she notified BARC of the funding cut on April 26 and followed it up with a May 4 memorandum to "Persons Interested in the Future of Synergy," she later admitted that somehow the "information was not given to the Synergy staff, so that the announcement that funds would, indeed, be cut off after this June 30 came as a shock." Celeste West maintained that the abrupt notice left little time to save Synergy and, disgusted with the funding flap and tired of hassles, she resigned. In her resignation letter, West asked "WHAT DOES THE STATE LIBRARY HAVE IN ITS CROCK O'RELEVANCE?" She believed Synergy's many bibliographies/reviews on topics such as feminism, Native Americans, unions, children's liberation, occultism, head comix, radicals in the professions, free schools, and independent publishing were very "relevant" to the contemporary library world. 9

The San Francisco Public Library talked publicly of taking over the magazine, but BARC feared censorship. BARC members recognized the library press was not free. In general, it was monopolized by a blend of associations and institutions and was controlled by particular publishing interests. Even the vanguard alternative library title Synergy, for example, was not only financially dependent on a federal grant, but each issue required San Francisco Public Library's approval before publication. The library had previously "bollixed five different reprint offers which might have brought in money," West argued, "choked creativity on the bone of prior censorship," and suppressed "protesting editorials." West maintained she had to kidnap the final Synergy issue from the printer just to get it published. Other staff members complained of "odd military-school-like reprimands" and threats that they would be denied legal salary increases. 10

Ironically, in its last year of existence Synergy received its second H.W. Wilson Periodical Award and sold 2,000 copies per month. In hindsight, West argued (without providing evidence) that Crockett's real objection to the high-impact periodical was not a question of money. Instead, she asserted, California governor Ronald Reagan had appointed Crockett state librarian, and in West's view, directed Crockett "to kill" Synergy--the flagship alternative library publication that fostered an attitude for change in the profession, gave rise to a wave of alternative library literature, provided a ground for library activists to express their opinions and make connections, and "upped the ante on library periodicals" at a time when most librarians remained the "purveyors of Reader's Digested Status Quo print." 11

Alternatives In Print

At the American Library Association's (ALA) annual 1970 conference in Detroit, the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries elected Patricia Schuman (New York City Community College) as Action Council Coordinator. She immediately welcomed volunteers for a new Task Force on Alternative Books in Print. The Task Force evolved out of the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries' interest in the Radical Research Center's efforts (most notably its Alternative Press Index, 1970-) and the lack of information about small groups working for social change and what they were publishing. 12 Brooklyn College activist librarian Jackie Eubanks spoke about her embarrassment that the Alternative Press Index began outside ALA and urged those in Detroit not to allow the same end to come to other materials produced by groups in struggle for change. 13 As an active Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries member, a volunteer indexer for the Radical Research Center, and a veteran in the alternative press movement, Eubanks took a leadership role in the new task force.

Almost immediately, the Task Force on Alternative Books In Print began work on a strategy to make libraries and their collections relevant for their publics. 14 First, the Task Force proposed to compile a list of non-serial publications available from underground movement presses and allied organizations left out of Books in Print. Second, it planned to revise ALA exhibit policies which reinforced the concept that "the biggest are best" and which charged "too much for the small publisher to afford to exhibit at ALA meetings." 15 Initially the Task Force planned to create an adjunct to regular reference tools that would enhance library and bookstore access to media produced by nonprofit, anti-profit, counterculture, third world, and other activist groups.

When Synergy's October, 1970 issue went into distribution, Eubanks and fellow New Yorker Mimi Penchansky of Queens College had just completed a letter campaign to over 1,500 organizations, many of which had been listed in the Directory of the American Left. They had identified 250 non-serial materials for the Task Force on Alternative Books In Print's proposed publication project--Alternatives in Print. Next, they adopted the Alternative Press Index subject headings and persuaded Ohio State University Library Director Hugh Atkinson to get the university press to publish it. 16

The Task Force opted for an academic publisher for several reasons. First, commercial publishers judged the proposed publication unprofitable and not sufficiently market tested. Second, alternative press publishers did not have enough start-up capital to get the project off the ground. Third, ALA's publishing procedures were too arduous for a project intended to move quickly. Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries member Joan Marshall (Brooklyn College) was especially angry with ALA and library leaders for not picking up projects rejected by commercial publishers. She believed ALA needed to support the alternative press. 17

Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries members like Marshall, Eubanks, and Penchansky were deeply committed to providing access to the alternative press because they recognized librarians' traditional inability to balance collections by ignoring relatively inaccessible materials. They had no illusions about the profession's "neutrality" and believed that ALA-accredited library schools trained students to build collections using mainstream selection tools and venues. In their view, the Task Force on Alternative Books In Print offered an opportunity to counter the effect of conventional training. Eubanks cited her own experience at library school as an example.

Throughout her University of Chicago library education, she noted, she had passively accepted many traditional views. Only on the job did she learn to "hear and respect the real questions" put to her as a reference librarian at Brooklyn College Library. This experience persuaded Eubanks that many librarians made purchases "in a fog" and needed to pay more attention both to the types of information to which patrons needed access and to the political economy of publishing. She believed the prevailing mode of education to be insufficient because the models on which the purchasing policies were based were commercial. Eubanks was disheartened, for example, that library schools lacked courses in publishing and the book trade, and that the collections and acquisitions courses were too often "concentrated entirely on the freedom to read issue" and seen "entirely from a civil libertarian standpoint." In her opinion, librarianship's commitment to the dissemination of information, as expressed in the Library Bill of Rights (see Closing Comments), was largely ineffective. If librarians really wanted to convey information to the public, she believed, they needed to get involved in publishing. 18

With Eubanks at the helm, the Task Force on Alternative Books in Print lobbied to get small and alternative presses into the standard library indexes, catalogs and bibliographic references. It also launched a campaign to change ALA's policies on the leasing of exhibit-hall space so that ability to pay would replace set fees. Because small presses had less money to spend on booth space they were often excluded from library conferences. Large commercial publishers were a regular presence. 19 Initially the Task Force used the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries as a vehicle for setting up small press displays at ALA conferences. On varying occasions, displays at the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries exhibit-hall booth were regarded as a part of the Round Table's programs. Eventually the Task Force succeeded in getting ALA's approval for a special section of less expensive exhibit space where small presses could afford to exhibit. 20 The Task Force also set up exhibits at smaller regional library conferences, at meetings of the American Booksellers Association, and at the National Women's Studies Association. Furthermore, when Eubanks and other Task Force members attended national and international book fairs, they took Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries materials with them.

While the Task Force on Alternative Books In Print stood out as the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries group most involved with the alternative press, the Round Table's general goal--to make libraries more relevant to the public--provided the impetus for other task forces to address issues of access. The Ethnic Materials Task Force (later an ALA round table), for example, sought to make ethnic materials by and for Blacks, Puerto Ricans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Chicanos more accessible to patrons and to make the materials better known to other librarians. The Task Force produced lists of publishers who were producing ethnic materials as well as descriptions of the kinds of information that was being published--short stories, poetry, fiction, informational guides, and so on. Task Force members spoke with publishers to develop better working relationships and invited them to participate in ALA programs. Other task forces focused on literature for women, gays and lesbians, labour workers, political prisoners, migrant workers, etc. And all benefited from the efforts of the Task Force on Alternative Books in Print, which functioned as a central part of both the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries' structure and mission.

Prejudices and Antipathies: A Tract on the LC Subject Heads Concerning People

Sanford Berman earned his library degree from the Catholic University of America in 1961. By 1970, he had worked in libraries in the United States, Germany, Zambia, and Uganda. Berman had an avid interest in radical literature and a talent for library acquisitions as well as cataloguing and classification. His involvement in the library movement largely developed through his interest in the alternative press. For example, he read Synergy regularly, he corresponded with the Radical Research Center's Mary McKenney, he published his own alternative bibliographies, and he drew attention to and criticized undemocratic library practices. In early 1969, for example, Berman sent a letter to Library Journal from Zambia arguing that the Library of Congress' subject heading list enshrined and perpetuated "a racist/colonial bias." He further requested the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries to undertake a study "of the extent to which our major cataloguing and classification schemes are white, imperialist and Christian-oriented," and to make suggestions for improvement. 21

On May 12, 1970, ALA's Publishing Services Senior Editor Richard A. Gray asked Berman about his "provocative" letter. Gray agreed that subject headings were "saturated with Western chauvinism," argued that such research was "urgently needed," encouraged Berman to undertake a comprehensive study of the ethnic prejudices, and indicated that ALA Publishing was "seriously interested" in such a work. Gray warned Berman, however, that the study would be controversial, but that in his view "a good lively controversy" was just what ALA needed "to counteract the prevailing tone of dullness in professional literature. 22 Berman accepted Gray's challenge. Because he conceived the project as part of a Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries study, he enlisted the aid of several Round Table members. Together they intended to harness the concept of social responsibility for the proposed publication, and while Berman recognized the study would not only "jolt" the profession to reconsider "one of its most basic tools in a more discriminating analytic manner," he also suspected it would infuriate many people. 23

Berman's tract was not designed as "an attack" on the Library of Congress editors, but as a means to increase librarians' awareness that "inherited assumptions and underlying values" influence their work. He argued, for example, that the entry of works in library catalogues under the term "NIGGER" was "obviously biased." Thus, he asserted, "if librarians defend their right as educators to present all points of view in their collections, they must accept their obligation to provide an approach to their collections that is equally without bias, and which does not reinforce the psychological, sociological, economic, political, etc. assumptions and prejudices of their readers." Ultimately, his manuscript focused on the "realm" of subject headings "that deal with people and cultures--in short, with humanity," and included revised headings for subjects such as race, nationalities, faiths, ethnic groups, politics, peace, Labor, law enforcement, man, woman, sex, children, and youth. 24

In August, 1970, Gray wrote Eubanks that the Association intended to publish Berman's manuscript after "suitable revisions," but that because of her involvement with the alternative press and being under "current pressures for new directions" within ALA, he sought her counsel and advice. 25 Eubanks agreed to read the manuscript. Meanwhile, however, Gray began expressing reservations about publishing the work. In an August 18 letter he asked Berman to "tone down the emotionally charged phrases and locutions." 26 Berman refused, arguing that he would rather see the book go unpublished than for it to become a "mish-mash of compromises." "Will ALA print what I write the way I write it?" he asked brashly on August 30. "And is ALA ready to issue a radical, muckracking tract even though it may not wholly accord in form or philosophy with your usual editorial policy and predilections, nor perhaps with the current sentiments and sensibilities of a majority of the profession?" 27

Gray responded on October 6. It was normal procedure that highly argumentative works proceed slowly through the publishing process, he said, and because ALA was an academic publisher, it required "thorough scholarly documentation," especially because Berman's work was "severely critical of an old and venerable institution." ALA could publish a "temperately reasoned critique" of Library of Congress subject headings," he said, but it could not, "by its imprint, endorse a book which often partakes of the nature of a diatribe." Gray ended by saying Berman was free to confer with other publishers and that the Memorandum of Agreement between them was terminated. 28

On January 4, 1971, Berman asked Eric Moon (who had become President of Scarecrow Press in 1968) if he was interested in publishing Prejudices and Antipathies. 29 Moon did not hesitate. After reading only part, he wrote Berman that it was a landmark book and enclosed a publishing contract. Berman quickly signed it, and Moon turned the manuscript into what Berman called "an honest-to-God book within nine months, static-free." 30

Jackie Eubanks, who watched all this from the sidelines, was pleased that Scarecrow had picked up Prejudices and Antipathies and furious that ALA had rejected it. She recognized in the Berman-ALA brouhaha a common association practice, i.e., ALA said it supported the idea of collecting material on all sides of issues, but it did not practice what it preached. She later asked ALA Editorial Committee Chairman Donald E. Wright if he had seen the correspondence between ALA and Berman, and informed him that the Task Force on Alternatives in Print would not submit Alternatives in Print to ALA for publishing--first because it was so slow, but more importantly because of the kind of "pre-censorship" efforts Berman experienced with his manuscript. Did not ALA Publishing Services, she asked, support intellectual freedom? 31

Closing Comments

Because this article profiles only three select alternative library titles, it is difficult to draw broad conclusions about the whole of the alternative library press. However, even the brief histories provided supply some evidence that there have been limitations to the freedom of expression within library and information publishing. On one hand, ALA's 1967 version of its Library Bill of Rights (see Appendix)--instituted the same year that Synergy began publication--instructed librarians to combat censorship and to protect freedom of expression. On the other hand, some of the alternative voices in library publishing were outright censored, others were simply ignored.

Regarding the latter, in May, 1970, James O. Lehman published a survey of what 101 American colleges used as selection tools. He found that librarians favoured Choice, Library Journal, New York Times, Saturday Review, Publishers Weekly, Booklist, and Wilson Library Bulletin as selection aids. Survey respondents seemed unaware of the alternative press review media as a tool for the library selection process. 32 Lehman's conclusions came as a reminder to alternative library publishers that despite the directive in the Library Bill of Rights to represent all points of view, some librarians failed to stretch their imaginations beyond the mainstream horizons. The same can be said for some mainstream library publishers. For example, editors of Library Literature--the conventional indexing tool published by H.W. Wilson Co.--delayed coverage of many alternative library titles. The award-winning Synergy was not indexed until 1972, one year before its demise. Other titles were never covered by the periodical index. In practice then, American librarianship disseminated a subtext that offset the formal message of the Library Bill of Rights. The subtext reinforced the preservation of the status quo.

Today, library association groups such as the Alternatives in Publication Task Force of the Social Responsibilities Round Table (formerly the Round Table on the Social Responsibilities of Libraries) of ALA (former publisher of Counterpoise: For Social Responsibilities, Liberty and Dissent), independent library groups such as the Progressive Librarian's Guild (self-described as the "left-wing" of the Social Responsibilities Round Table of ALA and publisher of the Progressive Librarian), independent library publishers such as CRISES Press (publisher of Librarians at Liberty and Counterpoise), and a broad range of electronically-based forums such as Anarchist Librarians Web, Street Librarian, Library Juice, and carry on the work started by Synergy more than thirty years ago. 33 They continue to examine the library in its social context. They extend the reach of the professional discourse beyond the status quo. Perhaps most importantly, they provide forums for freedom of expression within the library and information studies press. This is as it should be. As professionals, librarians have the responsibility for "the development and maintenance of intellectual freedom." 34 As citizens, librarians have the fundamental right to freedom of expression.

Author's Notes

Much of the material included in this paper is taken from my dissertation. See Toni Samek. (1998) Intellectual Freedom and Social Responsibility: An Ethos of American Librarianship, 1967-1973. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Madison. [Dissertation]

A longer version of this paper appeared as "Library and Information Studies Press and Freedom of Expression" in Information science: Where has it been, where is it going? Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science, 267-301.

Thanks to the Faculty of Education, University of Alberta for a grant to fund post-doctoral research related to this paper. Thanks to Kate MacInnes for her research assistance on the University of Alberta grant project. And thanks to Taralee Alcock for her comments.

Appendix--ALA's Library Bill of Rights, 1967

The Council of the American Library Association reaffirms its belief in the following basic policies which should govern the services of all libraries.

1. As a responsibility of library service, books and other library materials selected should be chosen for values of interest, information and enlightenment of all the people of the community. In no case should any library materials be excluded because of the race or nationality or the social, political, or religious views of the authors.

2. Libraries should provide books and other materials presenting all points of view concerning the problems and issues of our times; no library materials should be proscribed or removed from libraries because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval.

3. Censorship should be challenged by libraries in the maintenance of their responsibility to provide public information and enlightenment.

4. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgement of free expression and free access to ideas.

5. The rights of an individual to the use of a library should not be denied or abridged because of his age, race, religion, national origins or social or political views.

6. As an institution of education for democratic living, the library should welcome the use of its meeting rooms for socially useful and cultural activities and discussion of current public questions. Such meeting places should be available on equal terms to all groups in the community regardless of the beliefs and affiliations of their members, provided that the meetings be open to the public. 35


1 Unpublished manuscripts, archival papers, and published primary and secondary literature constitute the formal research base. Three manuscript collections were particularly important: (1) the American Library Association's Social Responsibility Round Table Papers and (2) the Sanford Berman Papers, both housed at the University Archives, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and (3) the Radical Research Center Papers housed at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Published primary literature consists of newsletters, journals, monographs, and conference proceedings. The secondary published literature for this paper consists of research studies, dissertations, journal articles, and monographs from a variety of disciplines including mass communications, cultural studies, women's studies, and anticanonical studies.

2 "SYNERGY," Library Journal 96, no. 15 (1 September 1971): 2593.

3 Richard Cronenberg, "SYNERGIZING Reference Service in the San Francisco Bay Region," ALA Bulletin 62, no. 11 (December 1968): 1379, 1384.

4 Edward P. Morgan, The Sixties Experience: Hard Lessons About Modern America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), xix-xx.

5 Celeste West, "Stop! The Print is Killing Me," Synergy 33 (1971): 3.

6 Celeste West, "Congloms: Stalking the Literary-Industrial Complex," American Libraries 13, no. 5 (1982): 299; "A Conversation with Celeste West," 3-6.

7 West, "Stop!", 3.

8 Synergy (1973), ALA's Sanford Berman Papers, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Archives. See also Edward Swanson, "Synergy Protest" American Libraries 4, no. 7 (July/August 1973): 408; Noel Peattie, "The Fortunes of Synergy," Sipapu 4, no. 2 (July 1973): 8-10.

9 "Synergy Editor Resigns," American Libraries 7, no. 4 (July/August 1973): 412.

10 "Celeste West on Synergy," Sipapu 4, no. 2 (July 1973): 71.

11 "A Conversation with Celeste West," Technicalities 2, no. 4 (April 1982): 3-6.

12 Add a note about RRC.

13 ALA Meetings, 1969-70, SRRT-ALA General Meeting Proposal for an Alternative "BIP" National Task Force, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 8, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Archives.

14 Noel Peattie, A Passage for Dissent: The Best of Sipapu, 1970-1988 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1989), 138.

15 Jackie Eubanks to Martha Ann Kollmorgan, 25 March 1974, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 7.

16 "Librarians in Action," Workforce (March-April 1973): 20-23.

17 "SRRT-ified Action - A Task Force Report for SLJ," 734-735.

18 Sipapu 7, no. 2 (July 1976): 1-5.

19 Jackie Eubanks to Martha Ann Kollmorgan, 25 March 1974, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 7.

20 Betty-Carol Sellen (1970-87), Getting Library Attention, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

21 Sanford Berman, "Chauvinistic Headings," Library Journal 94, no. 4 (February 15 1969): 695.

22 Richard A. Gray, Senior Editor (ALA) to Sanford Berman, 12 May 1970, SRRT Correspondence, 1969-75, ALA's Sanford Berman Papers.

23 Sanford Berman to Patricia Schuman, Joan Marshall, and Sandy Goin, 17 June 1970, SRRT Correspondence, 1969-75, ALA's Sanford Berman Papers.

24 Sanford Berman, Prejudices and Antipathies: A Tract on the LC Subject Heads Concerning People (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1971), ix-xiv.

25 Richard A. Gray to Jackie Eubanks, 13 August 1970, SRRT Correspondence, 1969-75, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

26 Richard A. Gray to Sanford Berman, 18 August 1970, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

27 Sanford Berman to Richard A. Gray, 30 August 1970, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

28 Richard A. Gray to Sanford Berman, 6 October 1970, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

29 Sanford Berman to Eric Moon, 4 January 1971, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

30 Sanford Berman to Gerald R. Shields, 18 February 1972, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

31 Jackie Eubanks to Donald E. Wright, 22 February 1971, ALA's SRRT Papers, Box 11.

32 James O. Lehman, "Choice as a Selection Tool," Wilson Library Bulletin 44, no. 9 (May 1970): 960.

33 Alternative Publishers of Books in North America 4 was produced by the Alternatives in Print Task Force of the Social Responsibilities Round Table of ALA, but published by CRISES Press.

34 Canadian Library Association Statement on Intellectual Freedom (1974).

35 Intellectual Freedom Manual, 5th ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, Office for Intellectual Freedom, 1996), 13-14.

This article was published in a slightly different form in Counterpoise 4(1/2), Spring 2000.
Counterpoise grants permission to republish articles at will for non-profit purposes. Learn more about Counterpoise at .


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